What is Gout | Causes and Symptoms of Gout

What is Gout?

 

What is Gout | Causes and Symptoms of Gout
Gout

 

Today we're going to be talking about gout. Gout is crystal-induced information of the synovial joints. It's three times more common in males than females and the crystals are made from monosodium urate.

What are the Causes of Gout?

So monosodium urate crystals are what causes gout, and they deposit in the joint causing severe acute joint pain and swelling, and it's usually spontaneously going to resolve itself, but it can eventually become a chronic condition with more frequent episodes of pain, and eventually, it can result in joint deformity, so you can see from the diagram on the right we have some joint deformity from gout and this is a chronic case. The reason that we have gout is basically due to serum levels of uric acid, so it's the amount of uric acid which is present in the serum and gout is more likely to occur with levels greater than 7 milligrams per deciliter so the reason that we have high levels of uric acid is either due to the overproduction of uric acid or the under excretion of uric acid.

The under excretion of uric acid is more common and that's either due to decreased glomerular filtration rate it can also be to some kind of impaired renal function or the increase in consumption of diuretics also cause the under excretion of uric acid the other factor which is the overproduction of uric acid this can either be a defect in the purine salvage pathway which is one of the mechanisms where uric acid is produced and this is due to a deficiency In the enzyme hypoxanthine phosphor ribose, I'll transfer is another factor.

 

What is Gout | Causes and Symptoms of Gout
Gout Causes

 

For the overproduction of uric acid can be the disease that causes a high cell turnover, so diseases like psoriasis and generally cause a secondary case of gout, so we have a disease where one of the side effects that causes gout it's not directly due to that disease. Normally monosodium urate can be present in the joints, but it's usually balanced with the levels of the serum, but factors like temperature and the amount of blood that's flowing. Their cousin causes crystal formation so the reasons why gout is more common in the toes and the

ankles are because it's a much further location from the center of the body, so the temperature is much cooler and there's much less blood flow in comparison to the main trunk of the body, so this is why it's more likely to form in these locations now having these crystals present in the joint can be detrimental because the crystals are negatively charged, so it's an inflammatory response it activates the complement pathway, and it's the chemotaxis or the attraction of neutrophils creating an inflammatory response as well which can magnify as

Well.

Symptoms of Gout

Creating an inflammatory response as well which can magnify as

Well and can cause various symptoms of inflammation like,

  • Pain
  • Redness
  • loss of function
  • Swellings

 

 

What is Gout | Causes and Symptoms of Gout
Symptoms of Gout

They also activate the Kainan system as well resulting in local vasodilation pain and swelling now itself usually resolves on its own so by the phagocytosis or the breakdown of the crystals the effects of this inflammatory response even though it can be painful and there is swelling it does result in an increase in heat and fluid influx which does help to break down the crystals. Once we have this influx of serum and fluid the crystals themselves do get coated with serum proteins which are positively charged and the crystals are negatively charged and this reduces the amount of inflammatory response that the crystals can cause also anti-inflammatory cytokines like transforming growth factor-beta are released from macrophages which are present in the joints and these also help to reduce the inflammation but eventually due to the figures that have a go cytosis and the degradation of the crystal from heat and fluid influx it does tend to resolve.


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